August 14, 2023

✪ Characterizing provider-led adaptations to mobile phone delivery of the Adolescent Transition Package (ATP) in Kenya using the Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications to Evidence-based Implementation Strategies (FRAME-IS): a mixed methods approach


Dorothy Imbuka Mangale, Alvin Onyango, Cyrus Mugo, Caren Mburu, Nok Chhun, Dalton Wamalwa, Irene Njuguna, Arianna Rubin Means, Grace John-Stewart, Bryan J. Weiner & Kristin Beima-Sofie

University of Washington affiliated authors are displayed in bold.

✪ Open Access

Published: August 2023

Read the full text in the open access journal Implementation Science Communication



The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruptions to routine HIV services for youth living with HIV (YLH), provoking rapid adaptation to mitigate interruptions in care. The Adolescent Transition to Adult Care for HIV-infected adolescents (ATTACH) study (NCT03574129) was a hybrid I cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of a healthcare worker (HCW)-delivered disclosure and transition intervention — the Adolescent Transition Package (ATP). During the pandemic, HCWs leveraged phone delivery of the ATP and were supported to make adaptations. We characterized real-time, provider-driven adaptations made to support phone delivery of the ATP.


We conducted continuous quality improvement (CQI) meetings with HCWs involved in phone delivery of the ATP at 10 intervention sites. CQI meetings used plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles and were audio-recorded. Adaptations were coded by two-independent coders using the Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications to Evidence-based Implementation Strategies (FRAME-IS). Adaptation testing outcomes (adopt, retest, or abandon) and provider experience implementing the adaptations were also recorded. We summarized adaptation characteristics, provider experience, and outcomes.


We identified 72 adaptations, 32 were unique. Overall, adaptations included modification to context (53%, n = 38), content (49%, n = 35), and evaluation processes (13%, n = 9). Context adaptations primarily featured changes to personnel, format, and setting, while content and evaluation adaptations were frequently achieved by simple additions, repetition, and tailoring/refining of the phone delivery strategy. Nine adaptations involved abandoning, then returning to phone delivery. HCWs sought to increase reach, improve fidelity, and intervention fit within their context. Most adaptations (96%, n = 69) were perceived to increase the feasibility of phone delivery when compared to before the changes were introduced, and HCWs felt 83% (n = 60) of adaptations made phone delivery easier. Most adaptations were either incorporated into routine workflows (47%) or tested again (47%).


Adaptation of phone delivery was a feasible and effective way of addressing challenges with continuity of care for YLH during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adaptations were primarily context adaptions. While FRAME-IS was apt for characterizing adaptations, more use cases are needed to explore the range of its utility.

Trial registration

Trial registered on as NCT03574129.

**This abstract is posted with permission under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License**