April 4, 2023

✪ A Conceptual Framework for Group Well-Child Care: A Tool to Guide Implementation, Evaluation, and Research


Ashley Gresh, Deborah Wilson, Ada Fenick, Crystal L. Patil, Tumaini Coker, Sharon Schnidler Rising, Nancy Glass, & Rheanna Platt.

University of Washington affiliated authors are displayed in bold.

✪ Open Access

Published: April 2023

Read the full text in the open access Maternal and Child Health Journal



To use scoping review methods to construct a conceptual framework based on current evidence of group well-child care to guide future practice and research.


We conducted a scoping review using Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) six stages. We used constructs from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the quadruple aim of health care improvement to guide the construction of the conceptual framework.


The resulting conceptual framework is a synthesis of the key concepts of group well-child care, beginning with a call for a system redesign of well-child care to improve outcomes while acknowledging the theoretical antecedents structuring the rationale that supports the model. Inputs of group well-child care include health systems contexts; administration/logistics; clinical setting; group care clinic team; community/patient population; and curriculum development and training. The core components of group well-child care included structure (e.g., group size, facilitators), content (e.g., health assessments, service linkages). and process (e.g., interactive learning and community building). We found clinical outcomes in all four dimensions of the quadruple aim of healthcare.


Our conceptual framework can guide model implementation and identifies several outcomes that can be used to harmonize model evaluation and research. Future research and practice can use the conceptual framework as a tool to standardize model implementation and evaluation and generate evidence to inform future healthcare policy and practice.


What is already known on this subject? Group well-child care (GWCC) is associated with improved healthcare utilization (e.g., attendance, immunization rates), parent outcomes (e.g., psychological well-being, satisfaction), and clinician outcomes (e.g., self-efficacy).

What this study adds? Scoping review methodology was used to generate a conceptual framework of GWCC which can be used as a guide to standardize practices for implementation, evaluation, and research in GWCC.

**This abstract is posted with permission under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License**