Implementation Science at UW

UW Pubs: Implementation Outcomes

In a landmark moment for the field, Dr. Enola Proctor and colleagues published ‘Outcomes for Implementation Research: Conceptual Distinctions, Measurement Challenges, and Research Agenda.’ This open access paper distinguished implementation outcomes from service system outcomes and clinical treatment outcomes. Implementation outcomes were defined as ‘the effects of deliberate and purposive actions to implement new treatments, practices, and services.’

The authors argued that implementation outcomes were conceptually distinct from the other two types of outcomes, serving three key functions as:

  • indicators of the implementation success
  • proximal indicators of implementation processes
  • key intermediate outcomes of service system or clinical outcomes

‘Because an intervention or treatment will not be effective if it is not implemented well, implementation outcomes serve as necessary preconditions for attaining subsequent desired changes in clinical or service outcomes.’

– Proctor et al, 2011

Use the tiles below to explore publications with UW involvement, grouped by implementation outcome:





Implementation of Goals of Care Communication Innovation Among Nursing Homes: A Multiple Case Study Design

Journal of the American Medical Directors Association



Clinical Hypnosis for Chronic Pain in Outpatient Integrative Medicine: An Implementation and Training Model

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

Costs of integrating cervical cancer screening at an HIV clinic in Kenya

International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics


Behavioral Rehearsal for Analogue Fidelity: Feasibility in a State-Funded Children’s Mental Health Initiative

Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research




Design, implement, and diffuse scalable and sustainable solutions for dementia care

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

Implementation Outcomes (General)