October 4, 2022

✪ Assessing the sustainability of the Systems Analysis and Improvement Approach to increase HIV testing in family planning clinics in Mombasa, Kenya: results of a cluster randomized trial


Jessica E. Long, McKenna C. Eastment, George Wanje, Barbra A. Richardson, Emily Mwaringa, Mwanakarama Athman Mohamed, Kenneth Sherr, Ruanne V. Barnabas, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Walter Jaoko, and R. Scott McClelland

University of Washington affiliated authors are displayed in bold.

✪ Open Access

Published: October 2022

Read the full text in the open access journal Implementation Science



In Kenya, HIV incidence is highest among reproductive-age women. A key HIV mitigation strategy is the integration of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) into family planning services, but successful integration remains problematic. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial using the Systems Analysis and Improvement Approach (SAIA) to identify and address bottlenecks in HTC integration in family planning clinics in Mombasa County, Kenya. This trial (1) assessed the efficacy of this approach and (2) examined if SAIA could be sustainably incorporated into the Department of Health Services (DOHS) programmatic activities. In Stage 1, SAIA was effective at increasing HTC uptake. Here, we present Stage 2, which assessed if SAIA delivery would be sustained when implemented by the Mombasa County DOHS and if high HTC performance would continue to be observed.


Twenty-four family planning clinics in Mombasa County were randomized to either the SAIA implementation strategy or standard care. In Stage 1, the study staff conducted all study activities. In Stage 2, we transitioned SAIA implementation to DOHS staff and compared HTC in the intervention versus control clinics 1-year post-transition. Study staff provided training and minimal support to DOHS implementers and collected quarterly HTC outcome data. Interviews were conducted with family planning clinic staff to assess barriers and facilitators to sustaining HTC delivery.


Only 39% (56/144) of planned SAIA visits were completed, largely due to the COVID-19 pandemic and a prolonged healthcare worker strike. In the final study quarter, 81.6% (160/196) of new clients at intervention facilities received HIV counseling, compared to 22.4% (55/245) in control facilities (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]=3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.68–4.94). HIV testing was conducted with 60.5% (118/195) of new family planning clients in intervention clinics, compared to 18.8% (45/240) in control clinics (PRR=3.23, 95% CI=2.29–4.55). Interviews with family planning clinic staff suggested institutionalization contributed to sustained HTC delivery, facilitated by low implementation strategy complexity and continued oversight.


Intervention clinics demonstrated sustained improvement in HTC after SAIA was transitioned to DOHS leadership despite wide-scale healthcare disruptions and incomplete delivery of the implementation strategy. These findings suggest that system interventions may be sustained when integrated into DOHS programmatic activities.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02994355) registered on 16 December 2016.

**This abstract is posted with permission under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License**