August 2, 2023

✪ HPV vaccination in Kenya: a study protocol to assess stakeholders’ perspectives on implementation drivers of HPV vaccination and the acceptability of the reduced dose strategy among providers


Grace Umutesi, Lynda Oluoch, Bryan J. Weiner, Elizabeth Bukusi, Maricianah Onono, Betty Njoroge, Lucy Mecca, Kenneth Ngure, Nelly R. Mugo, & Ruanne V. Barnabas

University of Washington affiliated authors are displayed in bold.

✪ Open Access

Published: August 2023

Read the full text in the open access journal Frontiers in Health Services



Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among Kenyan women. Persistent infection with high-risk oncogenic Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV vaccines are safe, durable, and efficacious in preventing incident HPV infections. In Kenya, despite efforts to increase HPV vaccination, coverage remains low. We sought to assess: (1) barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination from the perspective of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), their guardians as well as stakeholders involved in HPV vaccine delivery, and (2) the acceptability of the single dose of the HPV vaccination among healthcare providers (HCPs).


Our study is nested within the KENya Single-dose HPV-vaccine Efficacy study (KEN SHE) that sought to test the efficacy of single-dose bivalent (HPV 16/18) and single-dose nonavalent (HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58/6/11) vaccination. We are conducting this study in Kiambu, Nairobi, and Kisumu counties. In these counties, we are interviewing stakeholders (n = ∼25), selected based on their role in HPV vaccination at the county and national levels. Interviews are audio recorded and conducted in English or Swahili. The semi-structured interview guides were designed based on: (1) the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) for AGYW and guardians and (2) the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) for other stakeholders. The Theoretical Framework of Acceptability (TFA) was leveraged to design the survey administered to HCPs (n = ∼309) involved in HPV vaccination. We will develop a codebook based on emerging codes from the transcripts and constructs from the TDF and CFIR. Emerging themes will be summarized highlighting similarities and differences between and within the different stakeholder groups and counties. Descriptive statistics and a χ2 test will be used to assess the distribution of responses between the different sites and regression analysis will be used to assess factors associated with high acceptability of the single-dose strategy while controlling for confounding variables.


Our study will describe key barriers and facilitators that affect HPV vaccination from the perspective of multiple stakeholders as well as insights on the perspective of HCPs towards the single-dose strategy to inform the designing of strategies to increase HPV vaccination uptake in Kenya and comparable settings.

**This abstract is posted with permission under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License**