August 16, 2021

✪ Low costs and opportunities for efficiency: a cost analysis of the first year of programmatic PrEP delivery in Kenya’s public sector


Kathryn Peebles, Kenneth K. Mugwanya, Elizabeth Irungu, Josephine Odoyo, Elizabeth Wamoni, Jennifer F. Morton, Kenneth Ngure, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Nelly R. Mugo, Sarah Masyuko, Irene Mukui, Jared M. Baeten, & Ruanne V. Barnabas for the Partners Scale-Up Project Team

University of Washington affiliated authors are displayed in bold.

✪ Open Access

Published: August 2021

Read the full text in the open access journal BMC Health Services Research



In 2017, the Kenyan Ministry of Health integrated provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) into public HIV-1 care clinics as a key component of the national HIV-1 prevention strategy. Estimates of the cost of PrEP provision are needed to inform the affordability and cost-effectiveness of PrEP in Kenya.


We conducted activity-based micro-costing from the payer perspective to estimate both the financial and economic costs of all resources and activities required to provide PrEP in Kenya’s public sector. We estimated total and unit costs in 2019 United States dollars from a combination of project expense reports, Ministry of Health training reports, clinic staff interviews, time-and-motion observations, and routinely collected data from PrEP recipient files from 25 high-volume HIV-1 care clinics.


In the first year of programmatic PrEP delivery in 25 HIV-1 care clinics, 2,567 persons initiated PrEP and accrued 8,847 total months of PrEP coverage, accounting for 2 % of total outpatient clinic visits. The total financial cost to the Ministry of Health was $91,175, translating to an average of $10.31 per person per month. The majority (69 %) of financial costs were attributable to PrEP medication, followed by administrative supplies (17 %) and training (9 %). Economic costs were higher ($188,584 total; $21.32 per person per month) due to the inclusion of the opportunity cost of staff time re-allocated to provide PrEP and a proportional fraction of facility overhead. The vast majority (88 %) of the annual $80,811 economic cost of personnel time was incurred during activities to recruit new clients (e.g., discussion of PrEP within HIV-1 testing and counseling services), while the remaining 12 % was for activities related to both initiation and maintenance of PrEP provision (e.g., client consultations, technical advising, support groups).


Integration of PrEP provision into existing public health HIV-1 care service delivery platforms resulted in minimal additional staff burden and low incremental costs. Efforts to improve the efficiency of PrEP provision should focus on reductions in the cost of PrEP medication and extra-clinic demand creation and community sensitization to reduce personnel time dedicated to recruitment-related activities.

Trial registration registration NCT03052010. Retrospectively registered on February 14, 2017.

**This abstract is posted with permission under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License**